PDF | We describe several influential hypotheses in the field of motor control including the equilibrium-point (referent configuration) hypothesis, the uncontrolled. Summary. We describe several influential hypotheses in the field of motor control including the .. Practical applications of the uncontrolled manifold theory. Motor Control: Theory and practical applications by Anne Shumway-Cook and Marjorie. Woollacoft. Williams and Wilkins, London,. (ISBN 0 0).
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Association of Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test with lower extremity injury in NCAA Division 1 athletes: an independent validation study. ity to predict the sensory outcomes of motor commands. By comparing mechanical contact events play an essential role in the control of object manipulation tasks. .. sufficient practice in manipulating an object with novel dynamics, people. Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more.
Furthermore, it does not explain how a single stimulus may elicit a variety of responses depending on context and on descending commands or the ability to perform new movements. Recovering MC is based on increasing or decreasing the effect of different reflexes during motor tasks.
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The Bobath concept is partially based on this theory. Hierarchical theory The hierarchical theory does not explain how a reflex on the lowest hierarchical level would dominate motor function withdrawal reflex. Reflex analyses based on the hierarchical theory of MC have been performed as part of the clinical assessment for patients with neurological deficits. These analyses have also been used to calculate the patient's level of neural maturity and predict functional capacity.
Motor programming theory The concept of motor programming does not consider that the CNS relies on musculoskeletal and environmental variables to achieve movement control. Similar commands can produce different movements depending on changes in these variables.
The theory emphasises the capacity for relearning appropriate action patterns in situations of high level motor control. Treatment should focus on recovering key movements for functional activity rather than on the retraining of isolated muscles, and also on locating alternative effectors if higher level motor programmes are not affected.
Systems theory Systems theory does not account for the subject's interaction with the environment. It suggests that assessment and treatment should examine not only deficits in specific systems contributing to motor control, but also those influencing multiple systems, such as musculoskeletal system deficiencies. Dynamic action theory The dynamic action theory presumes that the relationship between the subject's physical system and the environment in which it functions is the main determinant of behaviour.
Changes in motor behaviour may often be explained according to physical principles instead of a strict interpretation according to neural structures.
As such, an understanding of the physical and dynamic properties of the body provides therapeutic applications for this theory. Theory of parallel distributed processing Models based on this theory do not imitate information processing during the performance and learning stages.
This model can be used in clinical practice to predict the way in which nervous system lesions affect functions.
It explains that systems in the brain are highly redundant and able to operate with a loss of performance similar to the magnitude of damages. This is one characteristic of the natural behaviour of PDP models. Activity-oriented theory Activity-oriented theory informs us about the fundamental activities of the CNS and the essential elements controlled during an action. It states that MC recovery should focus on essentially functional activities. Ecological theory Ecological theory places little emphasis on the organisation and function of the nervous system.
CNS: central nervous system. Reflex theory In , the neurophysiologist Sir Charles Sherrington established the basis for the reflex theory of motor control, 4 according to which reflexes were the building blocks of complex behaviour intended to achieve a common objective. Hierarchical theory The hierarchical theory states that the central nervous system CNS is organised in hierarchical levels such that the higher association areas are followed by the motor cortex, followed by the spinal levels of motor function.
Each higher level controls the level below it according to strict vertical hierarchy; the lines of control do not cross, and lower levels cannot exert control.
Normal motor development is attributed to increasing corticalisation of the CNS that gives rise to the appearance of higher levels of control over the lower level reflexes; CNS maturation is the main agent of change in development, with only minimal input from other factors.
The hierarchical theory has evolved and scientists recognise that each of the levels may act upon the others depending on the activity performed.
Motor control : theory and practical applications
Reflexes are no longer considered the sole determinant of MC, but rather one of many essential processes in movement initiation and control. They have begun to explore the physiology of actions instead of the nature of reactions.
A specific motor response may be elicited by either a sensory stimulus or by a central process where there is no afferent stimulus or impulse. As such, it is more correct to refer to a central motor pattern.
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This theory, which is mainly supported by locomotion analyses in cats, 18 suggests that movement is possible in absence of a reflex action such that the spinal neural network would be able to produce locomotor rhythm without any sensory stimuli or descending patterns from the brain, and movement could be elicited without feedback. Incoming sensory stimuli exert an important modulatory effect on CPGs. The theory attempts to explain how initial conditions affect the characteristics of movement.
Dynamic action theory The study of synergies gave rise to dynamic action theory, an approach that observes the individual in motion from a new perspective. They will not require any instructions from a higher centre on how to achieve coordinated action.
The dynamic action theory attempts to find mathematical descriptions of such self-organising systems in which behaviour is non-linear, meaning that when one of the parameters changes and reaches a critical value, the entire system transforms into a completely new configuration of behaviour.
By using these mathematical formulas, it will be possible to predict the ways in which a given system will act in different situations. The dynamic action theory minimises the importance of the idea that the CNS sends commands to control movement, and it searches for physical explanations that may also contribute to the characteristics of movement.
Theory of parallel distributed processing The theory of parallel distributed processing PDP describes the way in which the nervous system processes information in order to act.
According to this theory, the nervous system operates both by serial processes by processing information through a single channel and by parallel processes by interpreting information from multiple channels and analysing it simultaneously in different ways.
The underlying premise is that the brain is a computer with cells that interact in different ways, and that neural networks are the brain's basic computational systems.
As with neural synapses, each element may be affected by others in a positive or negative way, and to a greater or lesser extent. These elements can be classified as sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Efficiency in task performance depends on the quantity of output connections and the strength of those connections.
The activity-oriented theory is based on the premise that the objective of MC is to master the movement involved in completing a specific action, and not just move for the sake of moving. Movement control is organised according to goal-oriented functional behaviour. He focused on how we detect information in our setting that is relevant to our actions, and how we then use this information to determine our movements. Motor learning Motor learning ML is defined as an array of internal processes associated with practice and experience and which, in the context of acquisition of a specific skill, will produce relatively permanent changes in how motor activity is elicited.
What we learn is retained or stored in our brains and referred to as memory, 35,36 whereas short-term modifications are not regarded as learning. Toggle navigation. Subscribe Register Login. Advanced Search. Motor Control: Theory and Prac Your Name: Your Email:. Colleague's Email: Separate multiple e-mails with a ;. Send a copy to your email. Some error has occurred while processing your request. Please try after some time. Article as PDF 1. Theory and Practical Applications.
Baltimore, Md:: There have been several recent attempts to move towards combining the two approaches into a single theory of motor control Martin et al. Over the past 50 years, the EP theory has been revised and refined from a hypothesis describing the control of a simple single-joint system to a theory addressing the production of complex movements, such as multi-joint movement and locomotion, and uniting the processes underlying movement production and perception.
Fundamental to the EP theory is the notion that threshold position control underlies intentional motor actions. To perform such actions, electrochemical influences descending from the brain in the presence of proprioceptive feedback to motoneurons are transformed into changes in the threshold muscle lengths or joint angles at which these motoneurons begin to be recruited, thus setting the spatial activation range in reference to the body geometry. This allows control levels of the CNS to specify where, in spatial coordinates, muscles are activated without being concerned about exact details on when and how they are activated.
In the most advanced formulation of the EP theory, activity of each muscle emerges, without any programming, depending on the difference between the actual configuration of the body and its threshold referent configuration, as well as on the rate of changes of this difference Feldman, in press.
Motor Control and Learning
A hallmark of the EP theory is that it describes motor control based on neurophysiological and physical principles. In a series of experiments on the elbow joint in humans combining involuntary movement elicited by unloading of the pre-loaded arm the unloading reflex , voluntary changes in the joint angle, and full relaxation of the elbow muscles while they were stretched, Asatryan and Feldman identified invariant and modifiable neurophysiological variables involved in these motor actions.
Involuntary behaviour was analyzed by unloading experiments in which the forearm was placed on a horizontal manipulandum and subjects resisted a specific load torque at a specific position with the elbow flexors.
The elbow position, load torque and flexor and extensor electromyographic EMG activity were measured in this initial state, called the equilibrium point EP of the system Fig. The EP is thus comprised of both an equilibrium position and its associated equilibrium torque.
In subsequent trials, from this initial EP, the elbow flexors were unloaded to varying amounts. Subjects were instructed not to intervene voluntarily when the unloading occurred.
This means that they had to let the arm move to its natural new position after the unloading and not try to make a correction, to return the arm to the initial position or to relax completely.M Michaelsen, C. It improved the tracking accuracy of flight simulator and expended its frequency response by constructing the multirate sampling sliding mode controller. Parkinsonism Rel Res, 13 , pp.
Muscle synergies during shifts of the center of pressure by standing persons. Delivers information about the events that make up the action, allowing the subject to create a mental model of the activity and interpret his or her possibilities for achieving objectives.
This has given rise to the concept of neuroprosthetics, devices able to substitute upper and lower limb motor function needed for self-care and mobility tasks, bladder function, and respiratory control. Clinical implications of a dynamical systems theory. Park, D.
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