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Chapter IX P. Romesh DuttA V.

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Rush Brook Willims. Ofc-oo Sj to ov 3: CO oo o. CO 5J0? Williams P. IsS L. India under Early British Rule R. Dutt v. Smith-Oxford History of India 8. V o-j-o o-o.

SO O Andhrula Sanghika Charitra by Suravaram Uploaded by balu. Andhrula Sanghika Charitra by Suravaram - balubabu24m.

Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Sustainable Development and Environmental Protection. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Collections F-O. XVI K? CD esortoeoo. IBS o. IBS' S5ji? C P; C, P, P; S- C, P, , CO SKicfib.

More From balu. Malyadri Reddy Sangana. Vamshi Krishna. Gerald Garcia. Popular in Arts. Charlyn Flores. Javiera Carrere. Prakamya Aishwarya. Tagaytay Highlands. Benakata or Benakataka just like Kalyana Kataka, can only be the name of a city but not of a region. With regard to the argument that Satakarni's dominions lay in the west and Andhra lay to the south of Kalinga, is not correct, Sata- karni was 'Dakshinapathapati', i. Then it must be understood that his dominions were not confined only to the west of Kalinga and moreover Bastar and the neighbouring regions which lay to the west of Kalinga were portions of Andhradesa from very early times.

Srinivasa Ayyangar, who accepted the Andhra-Satavahana identity, put forth arguments to show that the Andhras were a Vindhyan tribe, that their kings originally ruled over Western India and spoke Prakrit and not Telugu and that the extension of their authority was from the west to the east down the Godavari- Krishna valley. When their power declined in the west, the name Andhramandalam travelled to their eastern districts and became established there.

Jogelkar further strengthened this theory. His contention was that the Satavahanas were Andhras, but not Andhras of the east coast. They were known as Andhras because they lived on the banks of a river by name The Satavahanas 15 Andhra in Pune district of Maharashtra. These Andhras ted a great revolution and drove away the foreigners Kshaharatas , united the various tribes of Deccan and established a new rashtra. So Maharashtra was known as Navarashtra.

The protagonists of the theory of the Maharashtra origin of the Satavahanas put forth in general the following arguments:- 1 The Puranas describe Simuka only as Andhrajatiya but not as Andhradesiya; 2 politically Andhra then was not indepen- dent but part of Kalinga; 3 The metronymics and the Prakrit language of the Satavahanas indicate their western or Maratha origin; 4 the early Andhra Satavahana rulers were connected with Paithan and their records are found only in the west.

On the basis of these arguments, scholars concluded that the Andhras lived with Rathikas etc.

However the above arguments may ably be controverted. In the first place, the term Andhrajatiya applied to Simuka does not preclude the possibility of his being Andhradesiya.

Secondly, the argument that the then Andhra was not politically inde- pendent but part of Kalinga is proved false by the Jatakas and Indica which mention Kalinga and Andhra as two separate and contiguous Janapadas.

The Edicts of Asoka place the Andhras in present Andhradesa, and indicate it unreasonable to huddle them together with the others in Maharashtra. Thirdly, the metronymics argument is not strong one as only the later Satavahanas took them. Further Prakrit was inherited by the Satavahanas from the Mauryas along with political power. Fourthly, the early Satavahana connection with Paithan and the provenance of their records in the west only indicate that in view of the threat from the aliens like Yavanas, they bestowed more attention on the north-west.

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Rapson, V. Smith, R. Bhandarkar, J. Burgess and others. Suktankar and others held this opinion that the Satavahanas came to power from Andhradesa as unwarranted mainly on four grounds: 1 Their earliest records, epigraphic and numismatic, have been discovered at Nanaghat and Nasik in the Western Deccan; 2 In Hathigumpha inscrip- tion of Kharavela, the dominions of the contemporary Satakarm are spoken of as being to the west of Kharavela's own kingdom of Kalinga; 3 Bala Sri's inscription while recounting the terri- torial possessions of her son, Gautamiputra Satakarni makes no mention of any locality in the Andhra area; and 4 the first available Satavahana records begin to appear in Andhradesa only during the reign of his successor Vasisthiputra Pulomavi.

These arguments are the result of inadequate appreciation of the available information. The preconceived notion, that the Satavahanas had nothing to do with Andhradesa until the reign of Pulomavi I, blurred the vision of Suktankar and others in holding the Andhra origin as unwarranted.

It is forgotten that Satakarni II of the Nanaghat record, who performed two Asvamedhas, one Rajasuya and other sacrifices, bore the title 'Dakshinapathapati', i.

Deccan naturally includes Andhradesa which is its eastern part. If it is conceded that the Satavahanas were Andhras and that they were masters of the Deccan, then the sentence 'heedless of Satakarni, he sent his forces to west' in Kharavela's inscription does not mean that Satakarni's dominions were confined only to the west of Kalinga and had no connection with the Andhra area. Further Bala Sri's record has not completely ignored the Andhra area. It refers to Siritana Srisailam , Mahendra the Eastern Ghats and 'Assaka' the south-east province of Hyderabad state and the Godavari district , as within her son's dominions.

Moreover the earliest coins known hitherto were those of Satakarni I, the third member of the dynasty. Some very important coins have come to light recently.

Of such coins the Kondapur coins bear the legend 'Sadvahana'.

On palaco- graphical grounds, this Satavahana can be placed in 3rd century B. Parabrahma Sastri collected very recently over The Satavahanas 17 hundred early coins near the village Kotitingala on the eastern side of the hillock called Munulagutta on the right bank of the river Godavari in the Peddabankur taluk of the Karimnagar district of Andhra Pradesh. These included seven coins belong- ing to the first Satavahana ruler Simuka.

This discovery is of momentous importance for the history of the Satavahanas. It leaves no doubt about the association of the Satavahanas with Andhra from the very start.

The legend on these coins streng- thens the possibility that king Satavahana of Kondapur coins is none other than Simuka himself who is called Simuka Sata- vahana in a Nanaghat label inscription also.

The Jain sources mention Satavahana as the first Andhra king. The Kathasarrt- sagara contains a story about Satavahana. Therefore Satahana or Simuka Satavahana of the Kondapur and Kotilingala coins respectively is the same Satavahana who founded the imperial Andhra line and his successors called themselves Satavahanas, With regard to the capitals of the Satavahana kings, un- reliable and much later legend points to Srikakulam in the Krishna district, which cannot stand for scrutiny.

Dhanyakataka Dharanikota in the Guntur district seems to be the eastern capita] and when Maharashtra became part of Andhra empire and when the Satavahanas concentrated their more attention on western Deccan because of the Saka-pahlava menace. Paithan became the seat of their government in the west. Chronology of the Satavahanas Of the many complicated problems that the Andhras have presented, the most important one is the problem of their chronology.

Divergent views have been expressed by different scholars about the beginning of the Andhra Satavahana rule, but so far no unanimous conclusion has yet been arrived at by the historian on this point of issue. The foundation of the dynasty, which is known by its tribal name Andhra in the Puranas and by its family name Satavahana in the epigraphs, is attributed to one Simuka.

Five out of the 18 Puranas namely the Matsya, the Vayu, the Vishnu, the Bhagavata and the Brahmanda, furnish dynastic lists of rulers who ruled Magadha till the rise of the Guptas. Besides the mention of the dynastic lists, they recorded the reigning period of each dynasty and even tire names of the princes.

The Matsya and Vayu shed more light by furnishing in addition the regnal period of each prince. The statements found in the Puranas would have been accepted as the mast authentic but for the glaring discrepancies in their versions, and also for their self-contradictory statements between the genera!

The Vayu's genera! Both the Vishnu and the Bhagavata, in their general statements gave the names of 30 kings with a total reign of years.

In these contradicting statements, there is at least one point of uniformity in the Puranic tradition, that the Andhra kings were 30 and that they ruled for over four centuries. There is another unanimous statement in all the Puranas, viz : 'Sisuka Simuka of the Andhra race, having destroyed Susarman of the Kanva family with main force, and whatever will have been left of the power of the Sungas, will obtain possession of earth', It has been agreed on all hands that the Kanva Susarman's rule was ended in 28 B.

If the Puranic statement that the Andhras ruled for more than 4 centuries is taken into account, the rule of the Andhra dynasty would come to an end in the 5th century A. The Satavahanas 19 which is untenable due to the claims of other dynasties which came to dominate over their territories. Therefore of the two satements, the most reasonable one should be taken into con- sideration, rejecting the other.

In view of the fact that the rule of the Andhras cannot be extended beyond 2nd century A. Smith rejected the former tradition with an obser- vation, "the Andhra king who slew Susarman cannot possibly have been Simuka'. Bhandarkar accepted the first tradition, i. Yet he fixed 73 B. In his view, the Matsya furnished the names of those princes who were 13 in number belonging to the collateral branches of the dynasty in addition to the 17 kings of the main line, given in the Vayu Purana.

By interpreting the clause 'Whatever will have been left of the power of the Sungas' to mean that the Sungas and the Kanvas were simultaneously ruling the territories.

Bhandarkar placed the two successive dynasties as contemporary dynasties and came to the conclusion that the year rule of the Sungas also included the 45 year rule of the Kanvas.

On the basis of this reasoning, he fixed the initial year of the Satavahana rule at 73 B.

Bhandarkar's reasoning cannot be accepted because his inter- pretation goes counter to the Puranic testimony which is confirmed by Bana that Devabhuti, the 10th and last Sunga king was slain by Vasudeva, the first Kanva ruler who usurped the throne of Magadha for himself. In such a case it would be impossible to make Susarman, the 4th and hast Kanva king, a contemporary of Devabhuti. The point to be borne in mind is that Vayu also in its general statement mentioned 30 kings with a total reign of years.

If in Bhandarkar's view, Vayu gave only the names of the kings of the main line, it had surprisingly omitted the name of Pulomavi II, who was a king of the main line, succeeded to the throne after Gautamiputra. Therefore, the argument and the view expressed by R.

B.A Andhra Pradesh History ( Aandhrula Charitra ) [ TELUGU MEDIUM ]

Bhandarkar may be rejected and the Matsya Purana may be accepted in preference to the other Puranas as our authority, for it is fuller in details with regard to the number and names of the Andhra kings and also as it is in harmony with the general statements of the other Puranas including the Vayu which allot more than years to the Andhra dynasty.

Smith accepted the general statement of the Puranas that there were 29 or 30 kings who ruled successively for a period of four and half centuries and placed the beginning of the Andhra rule in the last quarter of the 3rd century B. He observed, "the independent Andhra dynasty must have begun its rule about or B. Rapson, like Smith, held that 'the most complete of the extent lists can only be interpreted as indicating that the founder Simuka began to reign before B. Rao, and Dr.

Ramachandraiya while rejecting the views of Bhandankar and Roy Choudhury and agreeing with the conclusion of Dr. Smith and Rapson as nearer to truth, placed the beginning of the Andhra Satavahana rule in B.

On the assumption that the 15th king of the Matsya list, Pulomavi I was the slayer of Susarman of the Kanva family and the conqueror of Magadha in 28 B. The Satavahanas 21 The reason for bestowing this greatness on Pulomavi may be imagined from two points : 1 The Vayu while giving only important names of the dynasty, by way of passing reference mentioned the first four rulers by name, kept silent tilt the advent of Pulomavi, and from him onwards gave a com- plete and fuller list of kings which fully corresponds with the detailed Matsya list upto Gautamiputra.

By the very mention of Pulomavi as the first in the second group of its list, the Vayu indirectly hints the prominence of the ruler who in all probability might be the ruler who slew Susarman in 28 B. His successors must have regarded him as a great ruler whose memory must be cherished- We find four rulers, who came after Pulomavi, with that name, and that name was very much coveted next to the name of Satakarni.

The importance of the name is further heightened by the statement in the Matsya, viz: "As to the Andhras, they are the Pulomas". To cherish his memory by his successors and descendants, Pulomavi's achieve- ments must have been very great and ever remembering. This memorable achievement in all probability might be his conquest of Magadha after slaying Susarma in 28 B.

The total reign of the 4 immediate predecessors of Pulomavi, was 19 years. During this period, the dynasty had to face considerable decline in its fortunes. To regain the lost glory and to set the house in order, Pulomavi, must have spent a considerable part of his reign.

If we allot a period of 15 years to entrench himself fully in his seat, his attack on Magadha and its conquest must have taken place in 28 B C.

The Hatigumpha inscription of Kharavela and the Nanaghat inscription of Naganika help us in this quest. In the Hatigumpha inscription, the name of one Satakarni was mentioned. King Kharavela of Kalinga in his second regnal year, sent his armies west "heedless of Satakarni".

The date of the Hatigumpha inscription is not known. But it furnishes the scholars a clue, by mentioning Dimita, the name of a Yavana king who retreated before Kharavela in the later's eigth regnal year.

This Dimita has been identified with Demetrius I, the son of Euthydemos, whose invasion against India failed because of Kharavela's opposition and also on account of trou- bles at home.

This fact has been confirmed by Gargi-Samhita of Yugapurana. According to Meyer the return of Demetrius occured in B. This was the 8th regnal year of Kharavela. Six years earlier Kharavela sent his armies against Satakarni. Therefore in B. The Nanaghat inscription of Naganika refered to one Satakarni.

Both the inscriptions, the Nanaghat and the Hatigumpha, on palaeographical grounds, were accepted by all scholars as contemporary documents for 'the alphabet of the former agrees generally with that of the latter'. Satakarni of Nanaghat record had been styled as Aprathihatacakra, and Dakshinapadhapathi. The 6th ruler of the Matsya and the 3rd ruler of the Vayu was one Satakarni. Both the Puranas have given him identical reign of 56 years. The name of the third ruler in other Puranas was variously given.

Satakarni of the Nanaghat record was a staunch follower of Brahmanism and is said to have performed a number of Vedic sacrifices, including two Aswamedhas and one Rajasuya. Therefore, Satakarni, who appeared in the Nanaghat and Hati- gumpha inscriptions, can be equated with Satakarni, who appeared as the 6th of the Matsya and 3rd of the Vayu lists.

On the basis of this identification, we can say that Satakarni of the Satavahana dynasty was the ruling king of the Andhra Kingdom in B. The Satavahanas 23 with out paying any heed of his existence. To entrench him- self in his seat and become a powerful rival to a great king like Kharavete, Satakarni must have come to the throne some 3 or 4 years before the dispatch of the armies by Kharavela against west.

Andhra History

The five predecessors according to Matsya rules for 87 years. Therefore Simuka must have founded the dynasty in B. This date is fully in accordance with the calculation made by suppossing that Pulomavi I was the king who slew Susarman in 28 B. Later Satavahana Chronology The correctness of B. The foreign powers such as the Sakas and the Pahlavas in the closing years of the 1st Century B. It was mainly on account of these foreign onslaughts, the power of the Satavahanas for sometime had to register a shart decline, subsequent to the reign of Pulomavi.

The king who once again retrieved the fallen fortunes of the Satavahana dynasty to its former glory was Gautamiputra Sri Satakarni, the 23rd king in the Matsya list. His mother Gautami Bala Sri, registering a gift at Nasik in the 19th regnal year of her grandson Pulomavi II, describes the great qualities of her son Gautami- putra Sri Satakarni as the destroyer of the Sakas, Yavanas and Pahlavas and the annihilator of the line of the Kshaharatas.

Another inscription at Nasik recorded in the 18th regnal year of Gautamiputra furnishes details of a campaign. A large number of Nahapana's coins found in the Jogelthembi hoard were restruck by Gautamiputra. All the regions mentioned in Bala Sri's inscription as belonging to Gautamiputra Satakarni were referred to in the inscriptions of Usavadata, the son-in-law of Nahapana and his minister Ayama, as were in the occupation of Nahapana.

Karle and Junnar. Whether the above years refer to Saka era or the regnal years of Nahapana is the problem. Rapson believing the years to be of Saka era, tried to fix the date of Gautamiputra on the basis of the Gimar record.

The Girnar inscription dated 72 Saka, i. Gautamiputra's con- quests of Nahapana seems undoubtedly On the basis of the above observation. Rapson placed the starting year of Gautamiputra Satakarni's reign in A. But the discovery of Andhau inscriptions of Chastana and Rudradaman, the Karda- maka rulers proved Rapson's view erroneous. The Andhau in- scriptions are dated 20 years earlier than Girnar record, i.Satakarni of the Nanaghat record was a staunch follower of Brahmanism and is said to have performed a number of Vedic sacrifices, including two Aswamedhas and one Rajasuya.

It is unknown in America. Bhandarkar, J. From this we are to presume that the areas that were conquered by Gautamiputra between A.

Smith and Rapson as nearer to truth, placed the beginning of the Andhra Satavahana rule in B. This results-oriented focus of the agency has proved successful for national, regional and local clients. This media file is in the public domain in the United States.

I was born and raised in Andhra Pradesh.. David Bara Egan. Moturu Hanumantha Rao and Kalluri Chandramouli played prominent roles in the national.